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      高考英語語法難點:定語從句6個考點+真題解析

       來源:滬江網校    要點:高考英語  
      編輯點評: 英語語法讓很多學生都頭疼,因為復雜難懂的句式和詞組有時難以記憶。 趁高考之前,趕快用真題查漏補缺吧!

      考點一 考查關系代詞whose引導的定語從句

      1. A person ________ e-mail account is full won’t be able to send or receive any e-mails. (天津卷)

      A. who B. whom C. whose D. whoever

      【解析】C。在所給的四個關系代詞中,只有whose能用于名詞用作定語,故選C。又如:A bookseller is a person whose job is selling books. 書商就是其職業是賣書的人。

      2. Many children, ________ parents are away working in big cities, are taken good care of in the village. (安徽卷)

      A. their B. whose C. of them D. with whom

      【解析】B。their是物主代詞,不是關系代詞,不能引導定語從句,所以不能選;在其余三個選 項中,只有whose能用于名詞用作定語,故選B。句意為:許多孩子的父母外出到大城市打工去了,他們在 家鄉被照顧得很好。

      3. I was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, a city ________ name will create a picture of beautiful trees and green grass in our mind. (湖南卷)

      A. which B. of which C. that D. whose

      【解析】D。在所給定的四個關系代詞中,只有which和whose能用于名詞用作定語,故可排除B和 C。而關系代詞which和whose用于名詞前作定語的區別是:which具有that或this的語義特征,而whose則 具有one’s的語義特征。

      考點二 考查關系代詞which引導的定語從句

      1. They’ve won their last three matches, ________ I find a bit surprising. (遼 寧卷)

      A. that B. when C. what D. which

      【解析】D。that不用于引導非限制性定語從句,故被排除;when可引導非限制性定語從句,但只 用于指時間,與句意不符,故也被排除;而what不是關系代詞,不能用于引導定語從句,故也被排 除;which在此引導非限制性定語從句,并在定語從句中充當動詞find的賓語。句意為:他們贏了最后三場 比賽,我發現這有點令人吃驚。

      2. My friend showed me round the town, ________ was very kind of him. (全國Ⅱ)

      A. which B. that C. where D. it

      【解析】A。由于兩個句子之間沒有并列連詞,所以不能選B或D;而where是關系副詞,不能用作 主語;which在此引導非限制性定語從句,并在從句中用作主語。又如:Peter drove too fast, which was dangerous. 彼得開車很快,這是很危險的。

      3. Whenever I met her, ________ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. (山東卷)

      A. who B. which C. when D. that

      【解析】B。that不能用于引導非限制性定語從句,故可排除;when是關系副詞,不用作主語,故 也可排除;who用于指人,但這里的定語從句不是修飾her,而是修飾whenever I met her,故不能用who, 此處應用which。又如:He said that he had never seen her before, which was not true. 他說他從 沒見到過她,這是不真實的。

      考點三 查關系副詞where引導的定語從句

      1. Mozart’s birthplace and the house ________ he composed “The Magic Flute” are both museums now. (上海卷)

      A. where B. when C. there D. which

      【解析】A。由于定語從句he composed “The Magic Flute”的主語和賓語是完整的 ,所以不能選D;when指時間,不用于修飾表地點的先行詞the house,故也不能選;而there不是關系詞, 不能引導定語從句。

      2. It’s helpful to put children in a situation ________ they can see themselves differently. (福建卷)

      A. that B. when C. which D. where

      【解析】D。由于定語從句they can see themselves differently的主語和賓語是完整的,所以 不能選A和C;when指時間,不用于修飾表地點的先行詞a situation,故也不能選。

      3. Life is like a long race ________ we compete with others to go beyond ourselves. (重慶卷)

      A. why B. what C. that D. where

      【解析】D。由于定語從句we compete with others to go beyond ourselves的句子結構是完整 的,不缺主語或賓語,所以不能選C;why引導定語從句,其先行詞只能是the reason,而不用于其他場合 ,故不能選;what不是關系詞,不能用于引導定語從句,故也可排除;where在此引導定語從句,修飾名詞 race,相當于in which。句意為:人生就像一場長途賽跑,在賽跑中我們為了超越自我而與別人競爭。

      4. I have reached a point in my life ________ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. (浙江卷)

      A. which B. where C. how D. why

      【解析】B。定語從句修飾的先行詞是a point,不是my life。point在此相當于一個抽象的地點 ,所以要用關系副詞where來引導定語從句。又如:We have reached a point where a change is needed. 我們到了必須改一改的地步。She had got to the point where she felt that she could not take any more. 她到了她覺得自己再也不能忍受的地步。

      5. —What do you think of teaching, Bob?

      —I find it fun and challenging. It is a job ________ you are doing something serious but interesting. (北京卷)

      A. where B. which C. when D. that

      【解析】A。由于定語從句you are doing something serious but interesting是一個結構完整 的句子,不缺主語或賓語,所以不能選關系代詞which或that,故可排除B和D;而關系副詞when只用于修飾 表示時間的名詞,故也可排除;where在此相當于in which,引導定語從句,并在定語從句中用作地點狀語 。又如:I don’t want a job where I’m chained to a desk for eight hours a day. 我 不想要一份一天8小時都得守在辦公桌前的工作。

      考點四 查關系副詞when引導的定語從句

      1. She’ll never forget her stay there, ________ she found her son who had gone missing two years before. (四川卷)

      A. that B. which C. where D. when

      【解析】D。that不用于引導非限制性定語從句,故被排除;which引導定語從句必須在定語從句 中充當主語或賓語,與本題的句子結構不符,故也被排除;where引導定語從句時,其前先行詞只能是表示 地點的名詞,而本題的先行詞her stay there(她待在那兒期間)不是表地點,而是表時間,故C也可排除; 關系副詞when在此引導非限制性定語從句,修飾先行詞her stay。句意為:她永遠不會忘記她待在那兒的 那段時間,在此其間她找到了她兩年前失蹤的孩子。

      2. Because of the financial crisis, days are gone ________ local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. (江蘇卷)

      A. if B. when C. which D. since

      【解析】B。when在此用于引導定語從句,修飾名詞days。此題的難點是先行詞days與關系副詞 when之間被are gone,容易誤解句子結構。句意為:由于金融危機,當地五星級賓館每晚收費6,000元的 日子已經過去了。

      考點五 考查“介詞+關系代詞”結構

      1. Gun control is a subject ________ Americans have argued for a long time. (陜西 卷)

      A. of which B. with which C. about which D. into which

      【解析】C。當一個定語從句由“介詞+which”引導時,其中介詞的確定方法就是要 找到與之構成搭配的動詞、名詞、形容詞等。在本題中,根據句意,句子所涉及的搭配是argue about a subject(爭論某個話題),所以答案只能選C。又如:I called him by the wrong name for which mistake I apologize. 我叫錯了他的名字,為了這個錯誤我愿道歉。

      2. She brought with her three friends, none of ________ I had ever met before. (全國 I)

      A. them B. who C. whom D. these

      【解析】C。由于兩個句子之間沒有并列連詞,所以不能選A或D;又因為是用于介詞of之后作賓語 ,所以要用賓格whom,不用who。句意為:她帶來了三個朋友,我以前一個也沒有見過。

      考點六 定語從句考查新角度

      The house I grew up ________ has been taken down and replaced by an office building. (江西卷)

      A. in it B. in C. in that D. in which

      【解析】B。這道題的本質是考查定語從句的用法,但其命題的角度比較特別,它既不考查先行 詞,也不考查關系代詞或關系副詞,而是結合介詞的搭配考查關系代詞的省略。句中定語從句I grew up 用于修飾名詞the house,由于其前沒有“引導詞”,所以可認為被省略了。而根據英語語法 ,可以省略的定語從句“引導詞”只可能是用作賓語的關系代詞that或which,這樣一來,就 必須要求空格處填一個能帶賓語的詞,顯然只有介詞in。

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